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2008, Vol. 3 No. 2, Article 26

 

Removal of Metallic Objects from Animal Feeds:

  Development and Studies on a new machine

A.G. Ramina, S. Jafari Shoorijehb*, H.R. Ahmadi Ashtianic, M.M. Naderid,

 M.A. Behzadib and A. Tamadonb


aDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Uremia University, Uremia, Iran
bDepartment of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, 1731, Shiraz 71345, Iran
cDepartment of Clinical biochemistry, College of Medicine, Tarbiat Modaress University, Tehran, Iran
dDepartment of Clinical Sciences, Veterinary College, Science and Research Section of Azad University, Tehran, Iran

 

*Corresponding Author; Tel.: +98 711 228 6950; Fax: +98 711 228 6940;
e-mail address: sjafari@shirazu.ac.ir; sjafari26@yahoo.com

 


ABSTRACT

A simple machine was designed by the authors to remove different metallic objects from animal feed stuff. A series of experiments were conducted to judge the efficiency of the machine whose results revealed that the device could remove almost 100% of magnetic metallic objects and 50-62% of non-magnetic metallic material from different feed stuffs. Metallic objects were more efficiently removed from wheat, barley and alfalfa than hay. The rate of removal of nails and wire pieces was higher than that of needles.

KEY WORDS

Diet metal remover machine, Traumatic reticuloperitonitis, Iron metals, Non-iron metals.

INTRODUCTION

Presence of sharp metallic objects in animal feeds causes a great economic loss to the livestock farmer. These objects once ingested by the animal especially ruminants may perforate the reticular wall causing severe ailments like vagus indigestion, diaphragmatic abscess, pneumonia, pleurisy, chronic pericarditis, and traumatic reticulo-peritonitis (TRP)[1,2]. TRP is of great economic importance as it causes severe production losses and high mortality rate in dairy cattle. Different measures are adopted to render the animal feed free from metallic objects to prevent TRP and other allied aliments. Passing of chopped feed over magnets repeatedly before being fed to cattle constitutes one of the preventive measures commonly adopted in organized dairy farms. Though, this process is time consuming and removes only a small fraction of magnetic materials, whereas non-magnetic objects are not removed at all. Similarly, the magnets administered orally to prevent or treat TRP can immobilize only those iron objects which are loose in reticulum and not embedded in to the reticular wall [3]. Rumenotomy may be the best treatment for TRP but is unnecessary in many instances because of tendency of foreign body to fall back in to the reticulum [4]. Therefore the only way to prevent TRP in dairy cattle is to make the animal feed absolutely free from metallic objects. During the present trial, an attempt was made to evolve and evaluate a device that could remove both the magnetic and non-magnetic metallic objects from different feed ingredients.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

A simple machine (Fig. 1) consisting of a funnel shaped inlet (part labeled 3) attached to a tubular body (part labeled 4) equipped with an electric motor (part labeled 2) on one end, a magnet (part labeled 6) at its base and a V shaped depression (part labeled 5) towards the outlet was designed by the authors themselves.
The efficiency of this machine in removing different metallic objects from commonly used animal feeds viz. hay, alfalfa, concentrate mixtures, wheat, barley, bread, straw and pulp was evaluated by conducting a series of experiments. The various metallic objects used in the trials included nails, wires, needles, aluminum, and copper pieces. Each of the metallic objects measured about 3 cms and weights ranged from 3-10 grams.
In the first experiment nails, needles, wires and copper pieces each 50 in number and 30 pieces of aluminum were mixed separately with 1, 2 and 5 Kgs of each food stuff and loaded one by one in the machine. The motor in the machine blows air towards the feed stuff at speeds sufficient to blow the feed particles out through the outlet canal. The nails, needles and wire pieces got stuck to the floor of the canal due to magnetic attractive forces. Owing to their weight copper and aluminum pieces got trapped in the V-shaped depression towards the canal outlet. The food particles blown out through the canal were collected and loaded again in the machine. This process was repeated ten times to obtain food stuff almost free from metallic materials. The trials were conducted separately for every food stuff and each metallic material.
To make the testing conditions more realistic the number of metallic objects were decreased in the second and third experiments. The food stuffs used in the second experiment were hay, alfalfa, barley, bread and straw. Only 10 objects from each of the metallic material were mixed with the food stuff and the mixture subjected to 10 operations of the machine. Similarly, in the third experiment the number of metals in every food stuff used was reduced to 3 each and the mixture subject to only 3 operations. The food stuff used in the third experiment consisted of hay, barley bread and straw.
The data generated there upon was statistically analyzed using ‘SPSS for Windows’ statistical software.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results of the various experiments are depicted in tables 1 to 4. It was observed that the machine could on an average remove 97.6%, 99.5% & 98.8% of needles, nails and wire pieces respectively. The rate of removal of copper was 50.2% while that of aluminum was 62.1%. The overall rate of removal got significantly increased on reducing the number of metallic objects mixed per unit quantity of the food stuff. The efficiency of the machine improved significantly when the number of each metallic objects mixed per unit quantity of feed was reduced from 50 to 10 and then to 3, making its use under actual field conditions a pragmatic possibility as incidence of metal impurities in common animal feeds is not as high as was used in experiment 1. These result are highly encouraging and favour the use of this cheap and easy to handle machine for preventing TRP especially at organized farms, since the disease is much more common in cattle fed on stored feeds especially those penned up inside far part of the year and rarely encountered in animals kept on free range grazing [1]. None the less this machine could be customized and sized to meet the requirements of not only the organized farms but also of a farmer with a small herd as well as at the feed manufacturing plant itself. Metallic objects were more efficiently removed from wheat, barley and alfalfa than from hay. The machine is able to remove up to 100% of magnetic objects and 52%-62% of non-magnetic metals. More research and further improvement in the design of the machine will increase its efficiency in removal of non-magnetic metals from feed stuff to a satisfactory level.

REFERENCES

  1. Blood DC, Radostitis OM, Gay CC. Veterinary Medicine. 8th ed. Great Britain: ELBS with Bailliere Tindall; 1995

  2. Braun U, Gansohr B, Flückiger M. Radiographic findings before and after oral administration of a magnet in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Am J Vet Res 2003;64:115-120

  3. Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, Constable PD. Veterinary Medicine. In. 10th ed. London: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:337-345

  4. Rehage J, Kaske M, Stockhofe-Zurwieden N, Yalcin E. Evaluation of the pathogenesis of vagus indigestion in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;207:1607-1611


Table 1: Mean ± SE and percentage of removal rates of different metallic objects from 1 kg of various food stuffs subject to 10 consecutive operations of the machine

AluminumY

CopperX

WireX

NailX

NeedleX

 

Feed

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

70.6

21.2±1 c

22

11±0.7 d

95.4

47.7±0.4 a

96.2

48.1±06 a

94.4

47.2±0.9 a

Hay

82.6

24.8±0.7 c

42.2

21.3±1.7 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

98.6

49.3±0.2 a

Alfalfa

81.6

24.5±0.6 c

45.6

33.8±0.9 b

100

50 a

99.8

49.9±0.1a

99.2

49.6±0.2 a

Concentrate

28.3

8.5±0.4 c

77.4

38.7±1.4 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

100

50 a

Wheat

33.6

10.1±0.5 c

72

36±0.7 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

100

50 a

Barely

58.3

17.8±0.9 d

31.8

15.9±0.9 c

100

50 b

99.8

49.9±01 b

96

48±0.9 a

Bread

78.6

23.6±0.9 d

42.2

21.1±0.8 c

100

50 b

100

50 b

97

48.5±0.3 a

Straw

53.9

16.2±1.5 c

34.8

17.4±1.1 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

98.8

49.4±0.3 a

Pulp

60.9

18.4±0.8 c

46

24.4±0.1 b

99.4

49.7±0.1 a

99.5

49.7±0.1 a

98

49±0.4 a

Total

X= 50 numbers; Y= 30 numbers; Significant difference between different letters (a, b, c, d) in rows (P < 0.05)

Table 2: Mean ± SE and percentage of removal rates of different metallic objects from 2 kg of various food stuffs subject to 10 consecutive operations of the machine

AluminumY

CopperX

WireX

NailX

NeedleX

Feed

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

74.6

22.4±0.6 e

30

15±0.9 d

91.2

45.6±0.7 c

96.4

48.2±0.3 b

87.4

43.7±0.6 a

Hay

81.2

24.4±0.6 b

49

24.5±2.1 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

98.6

49.3±0.2 a

Alfalfa

82.9

24.9±0.4 c

69.6

34.8±0.6 b

99.8

49.9±0.1 a

100

50 a

99.4

49.7±0.2 a

Concentrate

35

10.5±0.6 c

80.2

40.1±1.5 b

99.6

49.8±0.1 a

99.8

49.9±0.1 a

100

50 a

Wheat

46.3

13.9±0.5 c

75.6

37.8±0.6 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

99

49.5±0.2 a

Barely

63.6

19.1±1.3 b

37

18.5±1.1 b

99.4

49.7±0.2 a

99.4

49.7±0.2 a

98.8

49.4±03 a

Bread

71.6

21.6±3.3 d

28.8

14.4±0.9 c

98.8

49.9±0.1 b

100

50 b

99

48.5±0.3 a

Straw

69.3

20.8±0.8 c

66

33±0.6 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

98.8

49.4±0.3 a

Pulp

65.6

19.7±1 c

54.5

27.3±1 b

98.6

49.4±0.2 a

99.5

49.7±0.1 a

97.6

48.7±0.3 a

Total

X= 50 numbers; Y= 30 numbers; Significant difference between different letters (a, b, c, d) in rows (P < 0.05)

Table 3: Mean ± SE and percentage of removal rates of different metallic objects from 5 kg of different food stuffs subject to 10 consecutive operations of the machine

Aluminum

Copper

Wire

Nail

Needle

 Feed

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

%

mean±SE

83.6

25.1±0.6 e

30.2

15.1±0.9 d

90.2

45.1±0.7 c

95.4

477±0.6 b

82.2

41.1±0.9 a

Hay

84.9

25.5±0.6 c

41.2

20.6±1.9 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

98.2

49.1±0.2 a

Alfalfa

77.9

23.4±0.6c

64.6

32.3±1.3 b

99.8

49.9±0.1 a

99.6

49.8±0.1 a

99.2

496±0.2 a

Concentrate

63.7

19.3±1.3 c

73.8

36.9±2.3 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

100

50 a

Wheat

29.7

9.2±0.6 c

57.2

28.6±1.2 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

99.8

49.9±0.1 a

Barely

26.3

17.9±1.2 c

36.6

18.3±0.8 c

100

50 b

100

50 b

96.4

48.2±04 a

Bread

76.6

20.3±1.7b

38

19±1.9 b

98.2

496±0.2 a

99.4

49.7±02 a

98.4

49.2±0.3 a

Straw

35

10.5±1 c

58.8

29.4±1.5 b

100

50 a

100

50 a

99

49.5±0.2 a

Pulp

59.7

18.9±1 d

50.1

24.8±1.5c

98.5

49.3±0.1 b

99.4

49.7±0.1 b

96.7

48.3±0.3 a

Total

X= 50 numbers; Y= 30 numbers; Significant difference between different letters (a, b, c, d) in rows (P < 0.05)

Table 4: The percentage of removal rates of different metallic objects from 1, 2, 5 kg of different food stuffs by the diet metal remover machine subject to 10 and 3 consecutive operations of the machine

3 numbers, 3 replicates

 

10 numbers, 10 replicates

Food weight (kg)

Food

Aluminum

Copper

Iron

Aluminum

Copper

Iron

56

55.6

100

 

60

66

100

1

Hay

78

77.8

100

 

36

38

100

2

88.9

77.8

100

 

61

73

100

5

ND

ND

ND

 

62.8

44.4

100

1

Alfalfa

ND

ND

ND

 

100

77.8

100

2

ND

ND

ND

 

100

100

100

5

78

78

100

 

76

70

100

1

Barely

66.7

78

100

 

75

68

100

2

55.6

88.9

100

 

80

58

100

5

66.7

77.8

100

 

59

74

78

1

Bread

89

33.3

100

 

52

59

100

2

56

88.9

100

 

77

65

99

5

33.3

44.4

100

 

54

63

100

1

Straw

62.8

44.4

88.9

 

58

77

89

2

44.4

33.3

100

 

64

83

100

5

Fig. 1: Different parts and their function of the diet metal remover machine, large black arrows show the direction of food movement: 1) Electrical motor and blower fan: provided the blowing force of the machine; 2) Spiral part: increases the safety of machine; 3) Funnel shape part: for entering foods into machine; 4) Passing canal: the length changeable exiting place of food; 5) V shape curve: traps the non-iron metals that can not be removed by the magnet; 6) Magnet: absorbs the iron pieces;
7) Wheel: for carrying the machine; 8) Plug, wire and switch: connect to electricity and turns on and off the machine;
9) Metal surface and mounts

fig1 machine for removal of metallic waste from feed

 

 


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